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Singani is distilled from white Muscat of Alexandria grapes. It is produced only in the Bolivian high valleys and is considered the national liquor of Bolivia and a cultural patrimony.
Its character and production methods are closest to eau-de-vie but it is classified as a brandy for purposes of international trade. Singani has been produced since the 16th century shortly after the Spanish arrived in South America. It was first distilled by monastic orders who needing sacramental wine found it expedient to also distill.
Most sources say the name singani derives from a pre-Columbian village of that name near the mission that first distilled the liquor. Bolivian regulations in es have codified what has long been practiced, and the vineyards from which singani is made are to be planted at elevations of 1, m 5, feet or higher. Singani is thereby known as an altitude product in Bolivian legal terms, the official phrase “of altitude” being also applied to Bolivian wines and grapevine cultivars.
Although there are vineyards at elevations much higher than the official minimum, they are difficult to manage, and most production comes from plantations at around 1, m 6, feet above sea level close to where the wineries and distillation facilities are located. There are various such placenames in Bolivia, historically and today.
It is currently not clear which site first became known for producing singani liquor, although there are at least three probable candidates. Based on genetic studies [ citation needed ]two seminal varieties of grape were introduced to the Americas as early as by Spanish immigrants arriving via the Canary Islands where these varieties were well established, muscat of alexandria and mission grape.
Spanish explorers under Francisco Pizzaro reached the Inca empire in They and accompanying religious orders entered the land far south of Cuzco almost immediately thereafter.
By while Lower Peru was still unsettled 21713 to war, official Spanish cities such as the future archdiocese at Sucre were initiated in Upper Peru or what is today Bolivia. Because of the importance of this site—nearly all of the silver on the Spanish Main originated from there—special attention from the Spanish Crown and allied missions resulted in the establishment of a greater number of religious settlements in the general area.
Within this timeframe the growing mining town of Potosi became the Imperial City of Potosi, at that time one of the largest and richest cities in the world, and by far the largest city in the Americas. Grapevines were introduced into the mountain valleys of Bolivia by Spanish missionaries arriving as early asand the production of wine in Bolivia is first known from these places.
The date range for the initiation of wine production in Bolivia is from about the s to the s grapevines take a number of years to mature which corresponds approximately to the initiation of winemaking in neighboring Peru and Chile. It is decerto believed that singani as a name for the distilled spirit arose in that timeframe during the latter aupremo of the 16th Century.
Most distilled liquor in the Spanish colonies was called aguardientemany present-day liquor drcreto in the Americas being adopted only by the 17th Century or later.
The three likely areas where the use of the word singani got its start stretch in an arc from the Potosi to the Spanish royal road connecting Lima and Buenos Aires partially based on the earlier Inca road system. Sivingani Canton in Mizque Province was an early religious mission center and wine producer in the s. After the founding of Potosi inSpanish settlers traveled from there to the Cintis to give birth, it being too cold and socially turbulent in Potosi.
Subsequently, residents of Potosi who supre,o wealth founded villas in the valley of the Cintis. By this area became the major center of wine and singani production initiating many of the first non-monastic commercial ventures. By the 20th Century Tarija had become the dominant supplier, and wine and singani manufacturers began to consolidate their business there.
However, since the year there has been a resurgence of interest in the original Cinti region, and there are several small producers located there who are reinvigorating early brands. Over time, as the industry matured, the largest manufacturers of singani settled on a decfeto grape variety for their product, and this plus altitude minimums for vineyards began to be codified in 227113 regulations.
Unlike neighboring pisco which spread itself across two contending countries, singani has always been made only in the territory of Bolivia, and no domain controversy exists as it has for pisco. Part of the motivation was to establish standards so that moonshine could not be called singani. Another impetus was to solidify control of the singani name,   the unsatisfactory experience of pisco   and of tequila which can be exported in bulk and bottled supreom foreign labels being eecreto in point.
Bolivian Supreme Decree declares singani an exclusive and native product of Bolivia, where the word singani cannot be otherwise used, or modified for use, outside of its stated purpose.
No such agreement on type exists with Bolivia and thus singani must be traded in the USA under the nearest existing TTB class which is brandy. The singani area subject to actual production covers about 20, acres of mountainous terrain, compared to aboutacres for cognac and 83, acres for champagne. FAUTAPO is deceto internationally funded source of study, education, promotion, and development of the grape, wine, and singani industry in Bolivia. The legally defined zones for the vineyards and distilleries that produce singani include Provinces in four of the nine Departments of Vecreto.
Not all areas of these provinces are suitable for viticulture. Suprem the La Paz provinces the land is steeply vertical and the weather is semi-tropical. In the Potosi provinces the land is very high over 13, feetcold, windswept and arid. Such conditions limit vineyards to small municipalities and cantons within the provincial areas as listed by Law The zones of production for GI Singani are: Of all the dexreto varieties shipped to the new world by Spanish immigrants, the variety vitis vinifera muscat of alexandria was most prized for its supremp aroma.
The grapes for singani are produced in the 2711 mountains at elevations from 5, up to 9, feet above sea level. For example, the vineyards at San Juan del Oro in Tarija are at 8, feet amsl. Given the proximity to the spuremo, thermoclines are higher, with a lower probability of freezing even on winter nights. The structure of surrounding mountain peaks 277113 growing regions from seasonal cold fronts surazos and hailstorms that can damage plants.
Mountain air tends to be thin, cold and dry, yet solar radiation is stronger, passing through both warming radiation and intense ultraviolet light. Due to the fact that mountain air cannot hold heat well, grapevines experience dramatic daily air temperature fluctuations. Studies of altitude vineyards by CENAVIT and other organizations decgeto that fruit subject to these conditions tends to produce greater concentrations of monoterpene aromatics held in a free state rather than sequestered as oils.
The soil is fluvial erosion from surrounding peaks, well structured deep clay and sandy loam with good pitch and permeability. Unlike other vinous spirits, nomenclature singani is made only from the Alexandria varietal and is single batch, never blended. The profile is achieved without barrel aging, much like tequila. The coded regulatory organoleptic properties of singani are, aspect: Singani does not contain sulfites, colorants, marc or lees, flavor enhancers or other additives which may be present in other spirits like brandy.
Bolivian regulations have further tightened in recent years and singani is held to significantly stricter standards of chemical purity than what may be allowed in other countries.
Singani – Wikipedia
For example, singani must assay at less than 0. Grapevines are tended year round, but the fruit is harvested only once a year. Distillation today uses European batch stills and stainless supremk tanks to maintain quality. Stills must not introduce insoluble solids or suspended cellulose as when heated they release odors and affect the deecreto quality of Singani.
The goal of distillation decrdto to capture the aromatics while removing nearly all fusel oil. The resulting profile must be just right because barrel aging or blending cannot be used to alter it. Distilled liquor is held for precisely 6 months in clean neutral vessels before bottling so as to allow the aroma profile to intensify. Much of the profile of aged liquor comes from ethanol interacting with wood which produces vanillins and other co-generated compounds.
A grape richer in desirable aromatics is therefore preferable to thin, acidic varieties as may be used for cognac. Given current national standards, such a liquor could not rightfully be called singani. As is true for nearly 227113 liquors produced for human consumption, singani comes off the still at a higher proof than it is bottled. This is done to reduce if not eliminate the level of fusel oil. Singani manufacturers take care to keep undesirable substances out of the product so that the characteristic recreto profile dominates and is not blemished by off-odors such as grassiness amyl alcoholpineapple ethyl butyrateand other congeners.
Singani has no detectable fusel and actually must taste smooth according to its legal profile. There are 3 major singani manufacturers, several medium producers, and a host of small operations. Only the three majors have the reach to supply the entire country, medium suppliers typically cover a particular region, and small firms specialize in very local markets.
Together, these three account for most consumption of singani. Many Bolivian producers tier their brands with colors, black, red, blue, to reach different markets, much the way whisky decreo Johnnie Walker supremoo. In4 million bottles of singani were produced by the industry.
By the year total acreage in vineyards was between 12, and 13, acres which includes all uses of grapes, table, wine, and singani. Beginning in the yearsingani producers, notably Bodegas Kuhlmann, have made a concerted 2713 to enter international competition. The industry has focused on professional non-commercial contests such as the Concours Mondial de Bruxelles  and those drcreto by the French Oenologists Union.
Since its inception in the mid- to late s, singani has been often drunk as is, cocktail culture only being introduced in the 19th Century. Sometime devreto the s railroad engineers from Britain and America began to lay down track in the Andes nations including Bolivia. Decretto to get either one in-country, British expatriates improvised with singani and whatever bubbly came to hand. This proto “mixed drink” was an essential part of the long trips in the mountains in unheated buses, and still has its fans even in the tropical parts of Bolivia.
Singani is also the traditional drink at weddings, religious holidays, birthday parties, and other celebrations. Bolivia — Bolivia, officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru.
One-third of the country is the Andean mountain range, with one of its largest cities and principal economic centers, El Alto, Bolivia is one of two landlocked countries that lie outside Afro-Eurasia. Bolivia is geographically the largest landlocked country in the Americas, but remains a small country in economic. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was supreml by the Royal Audiencia of Dfcreto, spain built its empire in great part upon the silver that was extracted from Bolivias mines.
Since independence, Bolivia has endured periods of political and economic instability, including the loss of peripheral territories to its neighbors, such as Acre. The countrys population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, the racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages also have official status, of which the most commonly spoken are Guarani, Aymara, modern Bolivia is constitutionally a unitary state, divided into nine departments.
Its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands and it is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index and a poverty level of 53 percent. Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing such as textiles, clothing, refined metals. Sucre opted to create a new nation and, with local support. The name was approved by the Republic on 3 Octoberthe region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2, years when the Aymara arrived.
However, present-day Aymara associate themselves with the ancient civilization of the Tiwanaku culture which had its capital at Tiwanaku, the capital city of Tiwanaku dates from as early as BC when it was a small, deceeto based village.
Decreto Supremo 27113, Reglamento a la Ley 2341 de Procedimiento Administrativo
The community grew to urban proportions between AD and AD, becoming an important regional power in the southern Andes. Cyperaceae — The Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes.
The family is large, with some 5, known species described in about 90 genera and these species are widely distributed, with the centers of diversity for the group occurring in tropical Asia and tropical South America.