I am flattered to have been asked to write another. Foreword to Eric Whaites’ excellent text. It has been a great pleasure to see how successful this book has. Editorial Reviews. Review. “The book is detailed and comprehensive covers almost all that a Eric Whaites (Author). New edition of a classic textbook of dental radiography and radiology for undergraduate dental students, postgraduate students and qualified practitioners .

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Micheal Parkinson Project Development Manager: Jim Fadiology Project Manager: You may also complete your request on-line via the Elsevier Science homepage http: As new information becomes available, changes in treatment, procedures, equipment and the use of drugs become necessary. The author and the publishers have taken care to ensure that the information given in this text is accurate and up to date. However, readers are strongly advised to confirm that the fental, especially with regard to drug usage, complies with the latest legislation and standards of practice.

Contents Foreword ix Dental panoramic tomography Preface xi Acknowledgements xiii Factors affecting the radiographic image, film faults and quality assurance Part wjaites Introduction Alternative and specialized imaging modalities 1. The radiographic image 3 Part 5 Part 2 Radiology Radiation physics and equipment Introduction to radiological 2. The production, properties and interactions interpretation of X-rays 15 Dental caries and the assessment of 3.

Dose units and dosimetry 25 restorations 4. The biological effects and risks associated The periapical tissues with X-rays 29 5. Eroc equipment, films and processing 33 The periodontal tissues and periodontal disease Part 3 Radiation protection Implant assessment 6. Radiation protection 53 Developmental abnormalities Part 4 Radiological differential diagnosis – Radiography describing a lesion 7.

Dental radiography – general patient Denta, diagnosis of radiolucent lesions considerations including control of of the jaws infection 69 Differential diagnosis of lesions of variable 8. Periapical radiography 75 radiopacity in the jaws 9. Bitewing radiography radioloy Occlusal radiography The maxillary antra Oblique lateral radiography Qhaites and maxillofacial radiography Trauma to the teeth and facial Cephalometric radiography skeleton The temporomandibular joint Bone diseases of radiological importance Disorders of the salivary glands and sialography Bibliography and suggested reading Index Foreword I am flattered to have been asked to write another of the second edition were demanded, has Foreword to Eric Whaites’ excellent text.

It has confirmed that its qualities had been appreciated.

Elsevier: Whaites and Drage: Dental Radiology and Radiography ยท Welcome

With the appearance of the radioolgy except to encourage readers to take advantage of edition it was obvious that it provided an unusu- all that this book offers. However, its success speaks for R. Preface This new edition has been prompted by the intro- as well as by students of the Professions duction of new raddiology and guidance on ddental Complementary to Dentistry PCDs.

It therefore use of ionising radiation in the UK. In addition to remains first and foremost a teaching manual, providing a summary of these new regulations Wnaites rather than a comprehensive reference book. The have taken the opportunity to update certain content remains sufficiently detailed to satisfy the chapters and encompass many of the helpful sug- requirements of most undergraduate and post- gestions and comments I have received from graduate dental examinations.


In particular I have increased the number of examples of many As in previous editions some things have of the pathological conditions so that a range of inevitably had to be omitted, or sometimes, over- appearances is illustrated. The result I hope is a clear,logical However, the aims and objectives of the book and easily understandable text, that continues to remain unchanged from the first edition, namely make a positive radiologyy to the challenging task to provide a basic and practical account of what I of teaching and learning dental radiology.

Essentials of Dental Radiography and Radiology – Eric Whaites

Acknowledgements Once again this edition has only been possible Professor Richard Palmer Chapter 22thanks to the enormous amount of help and Professor Peter Morgan and Dr Eddie Odell encouragement that I have received from my Chapters 25 and 26Mr Peter Longhurst family, friends and colleagues.

Chapter 28 and Mr Paul Robinson Chapters 28 and My thanks also to the many col- In particular I would like to thank the members leagues and students who provided comments of staff in my Department both past and present. Whaitez Brian O’Riordan Whwites Emma Wing of the GKT Department of painstakingly commented on every chapter and Photography, Printing and Design who spent so offered a wide whhaites of helpful advice before his many hours producing the new clinical photo- retirement.

As both my teacher and colleague he graphs and new radiographic illustrations which has been an inspiration throughout my career and are so crucial to a book that relies heavily on visual I shall miss his wise counsel.

I am also particularly images. My thanks also to Miss Julie Cooper for indebted to Professor David Smith for allowing willingly sitting as the photographic model. Grateful thanks reading for which I am very grateful.

Miss Allisson Summer-field for their collective help and encouragement. I am indeed fortunate It is easy to forget the help provided with the to work with such an able and supportive team.

Dr Neil Lewis duced in the first place. Understanding the nature of the shadowgraph and interpreting the information contained within The range of knowledge of dental radiography it requires a knowledge of: Understanding the radiographic image is central to the entire subject.

The image is produced by X-rays passing through an object and interacting with the photographic The final shadow density of any object is thus emulsion on a film. This interaction results in affected by: The image shows the various black, grey and white radiographic shadows. A plaster of made from plaster of Paris, ii Plan view shows the Paris, B hollow plastic, C metal, D wood, iii Radiographs cylinders have varying internal designs and thicknesses.

The radiographic image 5 D Fig. The main limitations of viewing the two- dimensional image of a three-dimensional object The three-dimensional anatomical tissues are: Therefore, when viewing two-dimensional radiographic images, the and shape of structures within an object.

Essentials of Dental Radiography and Radiology

Periodontal ligament space Lamina dura Trabecular pattern Fig. The radiographic image 7 Front view Side view Plan view Fig. The side view shows that there is a corridor at the back of the house leading to a tall tower. The plan view provides the additional pieces of information that the roof of the tall tower is radiologt and that the corridor is curved. Erix the overall shape the architect to describe the whole house from the front view alone.


To visualize all aspects of any three-dimensional object, it must be viewed from several different Superimposition and assessing the location positions. This can be illustrated by considering and shape of structures -within an object an object such as a house, and the minimum infor- mation required dadiology an architect is to draw all The shadows cast by different parts of an object aspects of the three-dimensional building in two or patient are superimposed upon one another dimensions see Fig.

Unfortunately, it is only on the final radiograph. The image therefore pro- too easy for the clinician to forget that teeth and vides limited or even misleading information as to patients whaaites three-dimensional. To expect one where a particular internal structure lies, or to its radiograph to provide allthe required information shape, as shown in Figure 1.

This positioning lowers the dense bones of the base of the skull and raises the facial bones so avoiding superimposition of one on the other. A radiopaque white object arrowed can be seen apparently in the base of the right nasal radiolohy.

The fact that a partic- posed etic shadow appear less opaque. Unfortunately, even two seen. Eroc of the recently developed alternative views may still not be able to provide all the radiologg specialized imaging modalities described in desired information for a diagnosis to be made Chapter 17 have been designed to try to overcome see Fig. The radiopaque white object arrowed now appears intracraniallyjust above the skull base.

It is in fact a metallic aneurysm clip positioned on an artery in the Circle of Willis at the base of the brain. The dotted line indicates the direction of the X-ray beam required to produce the radiograph in Figure 1. Lateral views of the same masses shown in Fig. A Postero-anterior views of a head superimposed.

Eric Whaites – Research Portal, King’s College, London

This produces a similar image in each case containing a mass in a different position or of a different with no evidence of the mass. The information obtained shape. In all the examples, the mass will appear as a similar previously is now obscured and the usefulness of using two sized opaque image on the radiograph, providing no views at right angles is negated. B The lateral or side view radioogy a possible solution to the problems illustrated in A; the masses now produce different images.

Quality of the radiographic image Overall image quality and the amount of detail These factors are in turn dependent on several shown on a radiograph depend on several factors, variables, relating to the density of the object, the including: They are discussed in greater detail in Chapter These ideal whaits are shown diagram- matically in Figure 1.

The effects on the final image of varying the position of the object, film or X-ray beam are shown in Figure 1.

Image Image elongated foreshortened Film position not ideal Object position not ideal Image distorted X-ray beam position not ideal Fig. The radiographic image 11 Fig. A Increased exposure overpenetration. C Reduced exposure underpenetration.