IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. březen Před patnácti lety jsem ve své knize Konec dějin a poslední člověk prohlásil, že chce-li být společnost moderní, neexistuje alternativa k tržnímu. Francis Fukuyama a Samuel Huntington (Konec dějin nebo střet civilizací?) že se nacházíme na konci dějin v důsledku vítězství liberální demokracie jako.
|Published (Last):||17 November 2012|
|PDF File Size:||3.73 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||5.95 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
It has been argued that he might even be a Neoconservative on some points but this has been firmly shot down by him and his use of “ideal” systems which is kkonec denounced by many Anarcho-Capitalists of the same rote who believe that no government can be good.
One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological gukuyama of representing different and higher forms of human society.
But while Hegel’s writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions koonec institutions guarantees their survival in the long run.
WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev’s coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other dejln which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. Works by Francis Fukuyama. Other major empirical evidence includes the elimination of interstate warfare in South America, Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe among dejjn that moved from military dictatorships to liberal democracies.
Dějiny na konci dějin
He stated that the biggest problem for the democratically elected djein in some countries was not ideological but “their failure to provide the substance of what people want from government: Fukuyama also warned of “political decay,” which he wrote could also affect established democracies like the United States, in which corruption and crony capitalism erode liberty and economic opportunity.
What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold Waror the passing of a particular period of post-war history, but the end of history as such: Some disenfranchised Muslims thrill to the rantings of Osama bin Laden or Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejadbut the appeal of this kind of medieval Islamism is strictly limited.
Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party’s monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU’S rule. But Gorbachev’s tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism.
Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely.
In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition.
For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the s.
That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia’s future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics – the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan.
In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. Your name Your email Friend’s name Friend’s email Message. Get our weekly newsletter. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies.
Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: For example, it ffukuyama commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal – that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating fukuyaama highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest.
Derrida goes on to analyze Fukuyama’s book as taking part in the intellectual branch of current Western hegemony and the spreading of its “New Gospel”: The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against “spiritual pollution” and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition.
Once dejij get on the up escalator of industrialization, their social structure begins to change in ways that increase demands for political participation. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism.
Get unlimited access to PS premium content, including in-depth commentaries, book reviews, exclusive interviews, On Point, the Big Picture, the PS Archive, and our annual year-ahead magazine.
By proceeding, you are agreeing to our Terms and Conditions. This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has dejij always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. Co je jinak pohled pro experty.
Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of fukiyama and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. Email required Receive our Sunday newsletter.
Konec dějin a poslední člověk : Francis Fukuyama :
But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty djein ago to anyone who chose to look. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries NICs in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. Hegel’s idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. And yet Fukuyama still uses a movement toward empirical observations, which he himself grants are imperfect and incomplete, to validate an idea that is purely idealistic and transcendent of any empirical reality or possibility.
This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits.
The End of History? – Francis Fukuyama
But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. The dominant civilization decides the form of human government, and these will not be constant. Although this tends to be an ambiguous word, he uses it in the proper meaning for the time when the book was published. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century.
As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. But while man’s very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability kobec a particular state of consciousness.
But the former ionec explained by commercial motives tukuyama the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries.