Para la determinación de especie en la familia Argasidae se realizaron estimaciones morfométricas de estructuras externas. Se recolectaron garrapatas a. Las garrapatas duras y blandas (Acarina: Ixodidae y Argasidae) son arácnidos hematófagos obligados que tienen gran importancia médica y veterinaria en. (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae) parasitizing the frog Thoropa miliaris de una garrapata blanda del género Ornithodoros (Ixodida: Argasidae).
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Most argasid ticks from the Neotropical region are parasites of mammals and birds, with a few records from reptiles. Many species of the genus Ornithodoros are known only through larval descriptions, and their chaetotaxy and morphological characteristics have been used to separate argasidaf taxa.
In the present study, we describe the larva and the nymph of first garrapatae of a new species of the genus Ornithodoros that was collected from frogs of the species Thoropa miliaris. Larvae arrgasidae Ornithodoros were collected from frogs of the species T. The larval and nymphal description was based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. However, the larval morphology of the new species is unique. The larvae collected from Thoropa miliaris are a new species, Ornithodoros faccinii n.
This is the first report of argasid ticks on frogs in Brazil, the second on frogs and the third on Amphibia in the Neotropical garraapatas. Worldwide, there are around argasid species distributed in five genera, among which 87 species are recognized as inhabiting the Neotropical region, and 55 of these belong to the genus Ornithodoros [ 1 – 4 ].
Several species of this genus are known only from the larval stage and, therefore, the keys for specific diagnosis refer to this stage [ 56 ]. The genus Ornithodoros is the most diverse of the Argasidae family, and species have been described around the world, of which 16 belong to the Brazilian tick fauna, such as O.
There are only three records of parasitism on hosts of the class Amphibia by Ornithodoros in this region: In the argasidse study, we describe the larva and nymph of first instar of a new species of the genus Ornithodoros collected from frogs of the species Thoropa miliaris Spix, Anura: Cycloramphidae and determine the phylogenetic position of this species in comparison with other argasids from different regions.
acari ixodida argasidae: Topics by
Larvae of Ornithodoros n. One of the frogs, which was infested with five larvae was also kept in a special vivarium by one of us H. Luz until the larvae dropped off. Two nymphs emerged after thirteen days. Eight larvae were prepared on slides including the holotype and were measured under a Leica DM microscope coupled to the NiS-Elements BR bit measurement system, v.
Four larvae and two nymphs were examined under high and low vacuum, respectively. The description of the new species was based on the literature relating to the taxonomy of the subfamily Ornithodorinae [ 561516 ]. For the present study, regarding the current usage of valid tick names, we followed the nomenclature proposed in the specific literature on ticks worldwide [ 2 ].
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DNA was extracted from two larvae using the guanidine isothiocyanate-phenol technique [ 17 ]. The products were purified and sequenced using the same primers as used in the PCR.
These sequences were aligned using Clustal X [ 19 argaside and adjusted manually using the GeneDoc software, with sequences previously determined for other argasid species available in GenBank, and also with sequences from Ixodes holocyclus Neumann and Ixodes uriae White Ixodidaewhich were used as outgroup the accession numbers of all the sequences are shown in the resulting phylogenetic tree.
All positions were equally weighted and Bayesian analysis was performed using MrBayes v3. Larva with elongated dorsal plate, almost rectangular; argasidaae anterior and posterior margins gararpatas with sides parallel. Idiosoma dorsal with 10 argasldae of dorsolateral setae and 3 pairs of central dorsal argasjdae.
Idiosoma ventral with 7 pairs of setae 3 sternal, 3 circumanal and 1 ventrolateral pairs plus 1 anal pair. Presence of small spurs at the base of hypostome in the lateral position. Trochanter of palpi with spurs in the internal side and ventrally, some of them are bifid. Nymphs of first instar with reduced camerostome.
Hood and cheeks absent. First pair of argasidze setae Ph1 arising at level of insertion of article II of palpi and half of hypostome. Body with mammillae covering both ventral and dorsal surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy of idiosoma and capitulum of larvae of Ornithodoros faccinii n.
Part of basis capituli and hypostome. Detail of ventral idiosoma, showing the pair of setae VPL ventral posterolateral black arrow. Larvae of Ornithodoros faccinii n. Chaetotaxy of dorsal idiosoma: Chaetotaxy of ventral idiosoma: Scanning electron microscopy of gnatosoma and tarsus of larvae of Ornithodoros faccinii n. Details of capitulum showing small spurs at the base of hypostome in the lateral position black arrow. Detail of hypostome, palpi and chelicerae. Trochanter of palpi with 11 short spurs in the inner side, some of them are bifid black arrow.
Dorsal chaetotaxy as follows: Ventral base with lateral angles slightly rounded. Total length from apex of palpi to base Two pairs of posthypostomal setae: Ph 1 length 6.
These aargasidae can also be observed by optical microscopy using immersion objective. Scanning electron microscopy of nymphs of Ornithodoros faccinii n. Idiosoma, ventral view, showing the preanal groove reaching the sides of the body white arrow. Genital primordium white arrow on the ventral idiosoma.
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Tarsi I and U-shaped capsule white arrowpartially covered by a V-shaped membrane. Body shape oval, slightly pointed anteriorly, sides nearly parallel, length Mammillae with irregular surface and size throughout dorsum, larger at the lateral gardapatas posterior margin; short hairs present, discs placed in large depressed garfapatas within argasidaae grooves. Disc size and shape variable, as follows: Mammillae present on entire surface, larger at posterior margin.
Aperture of coxal glands posterior to coxae I. Preanal, transverse postanal and medial postanal grooves present. Preanal groove reaching the sides of the body; supracoxal and coxal folds present. Ventral base slightly wider than long, micromammillated, length Hood and cheeks absent; camerostome rudimentary. First pair of posthypostomal setae Ph1 exceeding level of insertion of article II of palpi and half of hypostome.
Palpi moderate in size, with few setae; articles micromammillated with ventromedial integumental ridge-like extension in internal margin of article I, which covers tarrapatas of hypostomal basis, reaching half of the hypostome; length article I Tarsi with claws, lengths of tarsus I and IV, respectively, The sequence divergence between O.
The larva of the new species is also related to larvae of O. Phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rDNA ticks. The alignment was produced using Clustal X and the tree was inferred by means of the MP method with replicates of random addition taxa. The species Ixodes holocyclus and Ixodes uriae were used as outgroup. The Bayesian support posterior probability values are derived from 1, argazidae. Species Ornithodoros faccinii n.
Thoropa miliaris Spix, Amphibia: They all come from same host and locality. The name of the species is a tribute to Professor Dr. In accordance with section 8. The larvae of O. Gargapatas larvae of this subgenus present dorsal plate pyriform and widest posteriorly; dorsal surface with 11—18 pairs of dorsolateral setae and 3—5 pairs of central setae, usually pointed and barbed; ventral surface with 8 or 9 pairs of setae plus a posteromedial seta; basal capituli without cornua or auriculae and palpal articles without spines argaaidae 15 ].
Nevertheless, the presence of small spurs at the lateral base of the hypostome and at the inner side of the trochanter of the palpi, as well as the dorsal plate that is smooth, elongated almost rectangular, with the anterior margin slightly rounded and narrowed and the posterior rounded and almost convex, comprise the main characteristics that morphologically distinguish O. Although the new species is phylogenetically related to O. The reduced number of dorsal setae around 13and the hypostome, which is pointed with denticles throughout its entire length in O.
Nevertheless, the dorsal plate, which is triangular in this last yarrapatas, and pyriform in O. Few dorsal setae are also common in O. But the new species is easily separated from them by the presence of long and pointed hypostomes. The PMS absent in most larvae of O.
The nymph of O. Nymphs of the species Ornithodoros azteci MathensonO. However, the presence of cheeks in the nymphs of those previously described species distinguishes them from the nymphs of the new species.
An incomplete description of nymphs of O. Unfortunately, most descriptions of nymphs of the genus Ornithodoros are generally poor on detail and illustrations, and this inhibits the ability to make comparisons between species [ 29 ].
The presence of genital primordium in the N1 of O. According to southern specialists, it is possible there are more species with this behavior, especially in the Neotropical region [ 32 ]. Although it has been reported that the nymphs of O. The host Thoropa miliaris is a frog that is endemic to the Atlantic Forest and is found in rocky environments near the coast in southeastern Brazil [ 33 ].
Thus, this report provides the first record of an argasid tick parasitizing Amphibia in Brazil. The morphological and phylogenetic studies are congruent and they support O. The morphological and phylogenetic evidence from the Ornithodoros larvae collected from T.