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Oxy-fuel welding commonly called oxyacetylene weldingoxy weldingor gas welding in the U. During the early 20th century, before the development and availability of coated arc welding electrodes in the late s that were capable of making sound welds in steel, oxy-acetylene welding was the only process capable of making welds of exceptionally high quality in virtually all metals in commercial use at the time.
This not only included carbon steel but also alloy steels, cast iron, aluminum, and magnesium. In recent decades it has been obsolesced in almost all industrial uses due to various arc welding methods offering greater speed and, in the case of gas tungsten arc weldingthe capability of welding very reactive metals such as titanium. Oxy-acetylene welding is still used for metal-based artwork and in smaller home based shops, as well as situations where accessing electricity e.
The oxy-acetylene and other oxy-fuel gas mixtures welding torch remains a mainstay heat source for manual brazing and braze weldingas well as metal forming, preparation, and localized heat treating. In addition, oxy-fuel cutting is still widely used, both in heavy industry as well as light industrial and repair. In oxy-fuel weldinga welding torch is used to weld metals. Welding metal results when two pieces are heated to a temperature that produces a shared pool of molten metal. The molten pool is generally supplied with additional metal called filler.
Filler material depends upon the metals to be welded. In oxy-fuel cuttinga torch is used to heat metal to its kindling temperature. A stream of oxygen is then trained on the metal, burning it into a metal oxide that flows out of the kerf as slag. Torches that do not mix fuel with oxygen combining, instead, atmospheric air are not considered oxy-fuel torches and can typically be identified by a single tank oxy-fuel cutting requires two isolated supplies, fuel and oxygen.
Most metals cannot be melted with a single-tank torch. Consequently, single-tank torches are typically suitable for soldering and brazing but not for welding. In short, oxy-fuel equipment is quite versatile, not only because it is preferred for some sorts of iron or steel welding but also because it lends itself to brazing, braze-welding, metal heating for annealing or tempering, bending or formingrust or scale removal, the loosening of corroded nuts and bolts, and is a ubiquitous means of cutting ferrous metals.
The apparatus used in gas welding consists basically of an oxygen source and a fuel gas source usually contained in cylinderstwo pressure regulators and two flexible hoses one for each cylinderand a torch. This sort of torch can also be used for soldering and brazing.
The cylinders are often carried in a special wheeled trolley. There have been examples of oxyhydrogen cutting sets with small scuba -sized gas cylinders worn on the user’s back in a backpack harness, for rescue work and similar. There are also examples of pressurized liquid fuel cutting torches, usually using gasoline.
These are used for their increased portability.
The regulator ensures that pressure of the gas from the tanks matches the required pressure in the hose. The flow rate is then adjusted by the operator using needle valves on the torch.
Oxy-fuel welding and cutting
Accurate flow control with a needle valve relies on a constant inlet pressure. Most regulators have two stages. The first stage is a fixed-pressure regulator, which releases gas from the cylinder at a constant intermediate pressure, despite the pressure in the cylinder falling as the gas in it is consumed. This is similar to the first stage of a scuba-diving regulator. The adjustable second stage of the regulator controls the pressure reduction from the intermediate pressure to the low outlet pressure.
The regulator has two pressure gauges, one indicating cylinder pressure, the other indicating hose pressure. The adjustment knob of the regulator is sometimes roughly calibrated for pressure, but an accurate setting requires observation of the gauge.
Some simpler or cheaper oxygen-fuel regulators have only a single stage regulator, or only a single gauge. A single-stage regulator will tend to allow a reduction in outlet pressure as the cylinder is emptied, requiring manual readjustment. For low-volume users, this is an acceptable simplification. Welding regulators, unlike simpler LPG heating regulators, retain their outlet hose pressure gauge and do not rely on the calibration of the adjustment knob.
The cheaper single-stage regulators may sometimes omit the cylinder contents gauge, or replace the accurate dial gauge with a cheaper and less precise “rising button” gauge. The hoses are designed for use in welding and cutting metal. A double-hose or twinned design can be used, meaning that the oxygen and fuel hoses are joined together. The hoses are color-coded for visual identification. The color of the hoses varies between countries.
In the United Statesthe oxygen hose is green, and the fuel hose is red. LPG will damage an incompatible hose, including most acetylene hoses.
The threaded connectors on the hoses are handed to avoid accidental mis-connection: Gas-tight connections between the flexible hoses and rigid fittings are made by using crimped hose clips or ferrulesoften referred to as ‘O’ clips, over barbed spigots. The use of worm-drive hose clips or Jubilee clips is specifically forbidden in the UK and other countries.
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Acetylene is not just flammable; in certain conditions it is explosive. If a detonation wave enters the acetylene tank, the tank will be blown apart by the decomposition.
Ordinary check valves that normally prevent back flow cannot stop a detonation wave because they are not capable of closing before the wave passes around the gate. For that kimmpalan a flashback arrestor is needed. It is designed to operate before the detonation wave makes it from the hose side to the supply side. European practice is to fit flashback arrestors at the regulator and check valves at the kompalan. US practice is to fit both at the regulator.
In case the pressure wave has created a leak downstream of the flashback arrestor, it will remain switched off until someone resets it. A check valve lets gas flow in one direction only. It is usually a chamber containing a ball that is pressed against one end by a spring.
Gas flow one way pushes the ball out of the way, and a lack of flow or a reverse flow allows the spring to push the ball kiimpalan the inlet, blocking it. Not to be confused with a flashback arrestor, a check valve is not designed to block a shock wave. The shock wave could kjmpalan while the ball is so far from the inlet that the ,impalan will get past the ball before it can reach its off position. The jimpalan is the tool that the welder holds and manipulates to make the weld.
It has a connection and valve for the fuel gas and a connection and valve for the oxygen, a handle for the welder to grasp, and a mixing chamber set at an angle where the fuel gas and oxygen mix, ki,palan a tip where the flame forms. Two basic types of torches are positive pressure type and low pressure or kompalan type. A welding torch head is used to weld metals.
It can be identified by having only one or two pipes running to the nozzle, no oxygen-blast trigger, and two valve knobs at the bottom of the handle letting the operator adjust the oxygen and fuel flow respectively. A cutting torch head is used to cut materials. It is similar to a welding torch, but can be identified by the oxygen blast trigger or lever.
When cutting, the metal is first heated by kimpwlan flame until it is cherry red. Once this temperature is attained, oxygen is supplied to the heated parts by pressing the oxygen-blast trigger. This oxygen reacts with gaas metal, forming iron oxide and producing heat. It is the heat that continues the cutting process. The cutting torch only heats the metal to start the process; further heat is provided by the burning metal. The melting point of the iron oxide is around half that of the metal being cut.
As the metal burns, it immediately turns to liquid iron oxide and flows away from the cutting zone. A rose bud torch is used to heat metals for bending, straightening, etc. It is so-called because the flame at the end looks like a rose bud. A welding torch can also be used to heat small areas such as rusted nuts and bolts.
A typical oxy-fuel torch, called an equal-pressure torch, merely mixes the two gases. In an injector torch, high-pressure oxygen comes out of a small nozzle inside the torch head which drags the fuel gas along with it, using the venturi effect.
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gaz Oxy-fuel processes may use a variety of fuel gases, the most common being acetylene. Many brands use different kinds of gases in their ikmpalan. Acetylene is the primary fuel for oxy-fuel welding and is the fuel of choice for repair work and general cutting and welding. Acetylene gas is shipped in special cylinders designed to keep the gas dissolved. The cylinders are packed with porous materials e. There is about kPa psi pressure in the tank when full. As a fuel acetylene’s primary disadvantage, in comparison to other fuels, is high cost.
Oxy- gasolinealso known as oxy-petrol, torches have been found to perform very well, especially where bottled gas fuel is not available or difficult to transport to the worksite. Tests showed that an oxy-gasoline torch can cut steel plate up to 0. In plate thicknesses greater than 0. The gasoline is fed either from a pressurised tank whose pressure can be hand-pumped or fed from a gas cylinder. Another low cost approach commonly used by jewelry makers in Asia is using air bubbled through a gasoline container by a foot-operated air pump, and burning the fuel-air mixture in a specialized welding torch.
Hydrogen has a clean flame and is good for use on aluminium. It can be used at a higher pressure than acetylene and is therefore useful for underwater welding and cutting. It is a good type of flame to use when heating large amounts of material.
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Hydrogen is not used for welding steels and other ferrous materials, because it causes hydrogen embrittlement. For some oxyhydrogen torches the oxygen and hydrogen are produced by electrolysis of water in an apparatus which is connected directly to the torch. Types of this sort of torch:. It has the storage and shipping characteristics of LPG ags has a heat value a little less than acetylene.
Further, more of it can be stored in a single place at one time, as the increased compressibility allows for more gas to be put into a tank.
Other welding gases that develop comparable temperatures need special procedures for safe shipping and handling.